Fertilizers, Urea, Granular, solid nitrogenous fertilizers
Nitrogen plays an important role in the protein development process of plants. Urea has the highest nitrogen content of all solid nitrogenous fertilizers in common use. It is widely used in fertilizers and is an important raw material for the chemical industry.
Amoot Iranian Trading Company is well known as one of the prominent exporters of Iran Fertilizer Urea and supplier of Turkmenistan Urea to India and some African countries for more than one decade. Exporting over 500,000 MT of Urea fertilizers proves the reliability and validity of our company in this regard.
Amoot Iranian is a customer-oriented company that does its best to gain credit through paying attention to all its customers’ needs and preferences in terms of shape (Prilled or Granular), packing (50kg bags, bulk or Jumbo/big bags. As Urea is an expensive essential and useful nutritious fertilizer for plants, it is popular in the agricultural industry and has a high rate of consumption worldwide. Amoot Iranian tries to make its customers’ gardens flourishing and increase their production efficiency by supplying the best quality Urea fertilizer along with delivering it with its initial quality maintained. With all the experience attained in Fertilizer Urea logistics including purchase, loading, shipping, discharging, packing and etc., Amoot Iranian staff are fully aware of the possible issues which may harm Urea quality since production until being delivered to the end user, hence Amoot Iranian considers and implements all the relative concerns to avoid them.
Urea with the chemical formula of CH4N2O has a white & solid appearance. The melting point of urea is 132 °C and its density is 1.33 g/cm³.
Urea fertilizer has no danger in normal conditions and is not categorized in dangerous goods. In case of temperature increase, Urea fertilizer may change to carbon dioxide and ammonia and if burnt burning it makes a little nitrogen oxide which is a toxic gas. Touching Urea fertilizer may be harmful to human body organs. The most significant problems urea may cause for human organs includes as follows:
Eyes: If Urea reaches the eyes, it makes them red and irritated but does not hurt the main part of the eye.
Skin: It may make the skin itchy and irritated.
Inhalation: makes irritation in nose and throat and cause respiratory problems.
Eating: cause the digestive system discomfort and usually makes nausea and vomiting.
The dosage of Urea fertilizer used must be carefully controlled, since applying an extra amount of urea may change the growth pattern of the plants and it may even have very negative effects on the plants and make them noxious. Urea is extremely soluble so if it pours in the sea in large scale, pollution of beach and sea is possible. Also, the dust made by moving urea may make air pollution. As a result, it is recommended to consider careful displacement and storing of urea in order to prevent subsequent air, soil, sea, and environmental pollution.
More than 90% of urea production in the world is used as nitrogen-containing chemical fertilizer. In its general usage, urea has the highest amount of Nitrogen among all the solid nitrogenous fertilizers (46.7%). Thereby applying urea is the most economically efficient.
Urea hydrolyzes to Ammonia and carbon dioxide in the soil. The Ammonia which is the result of this process oxidizes to Nitrate by the bacteria in soil and it is then absorbed by the plants. Urea in many cases is used in the multi-component formulation of solid fertilizers.
As urea is extremely soluble in water, it is appropriate to be used in fertilizer solutions )Such as combination with Ammonium Nitrate in form of UAN). Granular urea fertilizer can be distributed easier because of the small size of its particles so it is better than the Prilled Urea and this makes an advantage for the mechanical program. The most common impurity of Urea is biuret which reduces the plant growth.
The major problem with Urea fertilizer is that it may be washed by water easily as it is highly soluble in water, for example, if the plants receive more water than they need by rain or during irrigation, the urea may be washed and removed from the soil. Especially when the soil is sandy, the extra amount of water would wash the Urea fertilizer much more and easier. Therefore the receiving amount of water for the plants that have received Urea fertilizer should be thoroughly monitored.
Another type of common urea fertilizer is sulfur-coated urea. As Urea is highly soluble, the sulfur is applied to make a cover on Urea particles. This kind of fertilizer is less soluble and its nitrogen will be released gradually. So if the sulfur-coated urea is exposed to a high amount of water, the Nitrogen cannot be washed easily. Sulfur-coated Urea is more expensive in comparison to Urea fertilizer. Hence it is often recommended for decorative flowers and plants, the plants which are exposed to a high amount of rain and water or those that would be economically reasonable.
Nitrogen is the most important nutritive element in nourishing of fruit trees which helps the trees to grow. Nitrogen is effective in growth, flowering, fruit forming, fruit ripening, and Physiology issues after harvesting of most of the gardening products. It plays an important role in making protein compounds, amino acids and carbohydrates. Also, the amount of Nitrogen affects the color of fruits. Since the young parts of fruit trees which are growing up needs Nitrogen a lot, Nitrogen in the plant is highly moving and transfers to the younger parts of the plant. It is very effective in flowering which leads to improvement in fruit formation and efficiency. Nitrogen is also very helpful in fruit ripening so if it is added more than the necessary amount it causes excessive fruit ripening and reduces the fruits storage lifetime. Nitrogen-rich manure increases the fruit size which is the indirect effect of Nitrogen on fruit volume.
It should be considered that extra amount of Nitrogen disturbs fruit color (especially in apple trees). Overuse of Nitrogen increases the weed growth in fruit gardens and reduces plant resistance against pests and diseases.
Some other effects of Nitrogen on plants may be specified as follows: production and expansion of starchy parts of the plant, improving growth of green parts of the plants like leaves, increasing the plant foliage, and enhancing the efficiency and product size.
Global experts report spraying Nitrogen solutions on fruit trees, especially citrus fruits is particularly efficient and beneficial. Some researches believe that spraying Urea in summer is more effective than applying Nitrogen to the soil as it increases the fruit formation, their size, and overall efficiency. Spraying Nitrogen on orange trees in Washington resulted in the increase in the number of produced oranges, brix, vitamin C and fruit size as well as the decrease of fallen fruits. Also applying Urea fertilizer to them reduces the number of oranges that fall down from the tree.
When the reproduction period of the trees starts, activity and absorbed by the root of tree decreases it is recommended to compensate nutrients shortage with spraying such as Urea fertilizer to the soil or on the plant which helps the trees and provide all the necessary nutrients for them. The best temperature for the highest urea penetration in plant leaves is 19 to 28 degrees of centigrade. The permeability of citrus leaves depends on the age of the leaf. When leaves become 3 to 7 weeks old, Urea penetration reduces in comparison to the first week.
Whenever the plant’s root doesn’t absorb enough nutrients, spraying Urea solution on the leaves shall begin. When the tree doesn’t absorb enough nutrients, it may be due to the plant itself or the soil. Sometimes the effect of nutrients is more if they are sprayed as a solution on the plant rather than being applied directly to the soil.
Another important point is that before adding Urea fertilizer as the source of Nitrogen to the soil, it is better to measure the amount of Nitrate in groundwater. If the amount of Nitrate in groundwater exceeds the allowed amount, 45 milligrams per liter, it is not recommended to add Urea fertilizer to the soil because of consequent health issues which may occur.
According to an investigation conducted in California in order to compare the effect of spraying Nitrogen on the plants vs. applying it to the soil for finding out how they affect the amount of used fertilizer, the amount of water that moves to groundwater, and the function of the plants. The result demonstrated that spraying Nitrogen has the same effect on the plants that applying Urea fertilizer to the soil does. Sometimes even spraying the Urea on the plant is more effective than adding it to the soil. When Nitrogen is sprayed on the plant, there is less risk for the Nitrogen to be washed by water but enough amount of Nitrogen shall be used. Added Nitrogen to the soil may be washed easily by the extra amount of water.
It was reported that in Washington (1999), by just spraying Urea fertilizer (containing 160-gram Nitrogen for each tree) once in winter before the time of flowering, a great increase was observed in products’ size and number. Hence it even influences the size of oranges and makes them bigger.
Citrus leaves absorb more Urea in comparison to other sources of Nitrogen like Ammonium or Nitrate because non-polar molecules of Urea may be absorbed easier by the leaves in comparison with polar molecules. The result proves that absorption of Urea fertilizer through being sprayed on the plants is more than the absorption occurred through the soil. It was also observed that 40% to 70 % of the Urea is absorbed by the plant when it is sprayed on the tree. By adding Urea fertilizer to the soil, merely 28% of it is absorbed by the plant that is a low proportion.
Spraying Urea fertilizer during November to February is very effective. Reports state spraying Urea fertilizer in October and January increases the size of fruits.
The following symptoms may help you discover that your plants need more Nitrogen:
- Any kind of pause or stop in plant growth, and decrease of produced fruits
- Pale leaves (changing the color of them from green to yellow or pale green), especially when old leaves become pale
In case enough Nitrogen is not added to the plant, younger leaves also become pale, yellow and younger leaves stop growing and remain small. When there is a severe shortage of Nitrogen, old leaves fall down sooner, stems become very thin, dark, and strict. In this situation the fruits become pale, flowers do not grow and remain small or even fall. For instance, cucumbers get pale, curved with a narrow tip without receiving enough Nitrogen. Moreover, they become short either. Shortage of Nitrogen makes the root grow more than the stems and if this continues, the growth of root also stops, it turns brown and the plant dies. To solve overcome this issue, it is better to spray Urea fertilizer (200-500 gram in 100 liters of water) on the plants during sunset or sunrise once in two weeks.